US Army Survival Training Video: Field Crafts | Part 2

it started out as a routine mission now you find yourself in enemy territory maybe days from friendly forces you're not prepared for a long stay in a remote area suddenly you have a life-and-death mission surviving while you evade hostile forces you as a soldier you could find yourself in a survival situation at any time knowing some basic survival skills could mean the difference between life and death first aid water shelter food fire and signalling are the key elements of survival the priority of these elements of survival will depend on your situation as soon as you realize you are in a survival situation stop and size up your situation make a survival plan set your priorities according to the things that are most important to sustaining life in your circumstance size of your situation for all survival elements each time your situation changes changes in location whether injury and level of fatigue can affect your priorities in a hostile survival situation avoiding enemy detection will always be your top priority every survival move must be made in a way that doesn't reveal your position to the enemy water is a top priority in any survival situation water is especially critical in desert environments even in temperate climates a human cannot survive long without water dehydration can set in after only a short time you can be dehydrated without feeling thirsty the lack of water can affect your judgment and weaken your will to live in many survival situations you will need to obtain water security is always your first consideration in deciding when and how to procure water when possible look for water while moving at night try to get to your hide site with full canteens there are many ways to procure water even if streams and other bodies of water are not available vegetation is a good source of water solar stills built around vegetation collect condensed moisture from the vegetation but they could reveal your position to the enemy a transpiration bag is a solar still that collects water in a clear plastic bag tied around living vegetation to make the transpiration bag place a large plastic bag over a living limb of a medium-sized non poisonous tree or large shrub poisonous vegetation will produce poisonous liquid if you have a piece of tubing small straw or hollow Reed insert one end into the mouth of the bag before you tie it tie off the tubing seal the bag opening at the branch tie the limb down to allow the collected water to flow to the corner of the bag of all the solar still methods the transpiration bag yields the most water it can be used on the same shrub or branch for about three days collecting the same amount of water each day a vegetation bag or above-ground solar still works like a transpiration bag but with cut vegetation fill a clear plastic bag about 1/2 or 3/4 full of green non poisonous vegetation place a small rock inside tie off the bag inserting tubing if available set the bag with a mouth facing downhill on a sunny slope the rock should be at the low point of the bag condensed water will collect around the rock loosen the opening of the bag to drain the water or suck water directly from the tubing a seep hole in a damp area or an area where a stream has dried up will collect water available below the ground surface dig a hole in the muddy area deep enough for water to seep in the hole will fill with water sediment will settle to the bottom of the hole remove the water carefully to avoid mixing the sediment due from the grass can be a source of water early morning is a good time to collect water from do if security permits tie rags or a piece of clothing to your ankles and walk through the grass bring the moisture from the rags into a container and repeat the process water with heavy sediment may need filtering to make it more palatable you can filter water by letting it stand for 12 hours you can also pass it through a filtering system to put several inches of filtering materials such as sand crust rock grass charcoal or cloth into a container such as a trouser leg or a hollow log charcoal will remove foul odors pour water into the container and let it filter through into another container the filtered water should sit for 45 minutes before you drink it you can locate water by paying attention to your surroundings creeks and streams are often found at the bottom of hills drainage water collects in low-lying areas animals can lead you to water birds fly at dawn and dusk when they fly straight and low they are looking for water animal trails in a V pattern can indicate routes to water rainwater collected in clean containers is safe to drink sap extracted from certain trees and vines also is safe to drink without purification but cannot be stored use iodine tablets iodine drops or chlorine ampules to purify water all water from ponds streams lakes Springs and swamps should be purified to prevent illness and disease if you don't have purification tablets boiled your water never eat ice or snow do not drink seawater urine or blood as substitutes for water you will dehydrate your body even further by using these sources for water shelter could be important to your survival a good shelter could greatly increase your survivability time in Arctic and desert climates shelter is essential even in more temperate climates shelter can be a comforting psychological lift it can strengthen your will to live the type of shelter you build will depend upon time tools and the material available generally it is not desirable to build a shelter in a hostile survival situation unless weather conditions present a greater danger than enemy observation build your shelter to protect you from the predominant wind in the woods or tropics don't build shelter beneath dead tree limbs or coconut palms that could fall on you locating your shelter near water is good if you're fishing the disadvantages of locating near water are bugs lower nighttime temperatures and flooding a field expedient lean-to is a good shelter to protect you from rain but it could give away your location begin the lean-to by tying a pole about seven feet long between two trees waist to chest high place poles about every foot against the horizontal support these poles are the beams and should be about ten feet long and inch or larger in diameter as with all lean tubes place the beams back side to the wind criss-cross samplings or vines across the beam to create a mesh effect so that the waterproofing material does not fall through cover the framework with brush leaves pine needles or grass start at the bottom and work your way up as you would for shingling lay straw pine needles or grass inside the shelter for bedding for added comfort in cold weather a fire reflector ball will reflect heat back into the lean-to don't build the wall too close to your shelter because fire could spread to the shelter this debris Hut is a warm weatherproof shelter but it is large and could give away your location determine the basing size of the shelter by marking about eight inches on each side of your shoulders mark eight inches on each side of your feet and about one foot past your feet connect all the marks on the ground start a debris Hut by leaning a ridgepole against a tree or stump the pole should be 2 or 3 feet longer than your body place sticks also called ribs against the ridge pole with the bottom end of the ribs on the lines put a layer of brush across the ribs to create a mesh effect so the insulating material does not fall through tile leaves pine needles or grass until several feet thick the more insulating material the warmer the shelter put down a layer of sticks to keep the insulating material from blowing away in the wind and rain put about 1 foot of insulating material inside the hut you can also add a framework door or pile insulating material at the entrance and drag it back in with you to close the entrance you have now created a loose-fitting sleeping bag shelter in the desert can be critical you will need shelter to protect you from the life-threatening Sun this below ground desert shelter can reduce midday heat by as much as 30 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit two layers of Poncho's or covering placed about 18 inches apart create an insulating airspace this shelter requires more time and energy than other shelters since your physical activity will make you perspire and increase dehydration build it before the heat of the day a swamp pad protects you from the wet ground in swampy terrain for trees or poles with a frame of poles attached should be set high enough off the ground to allow for high water and tides leaves and grass make a soft sleeping surface you need fire to purify water and prepare food fires also are used for warmth and for keeping dry security is your first consideration in using fire in an evasion situation fire should be used only for survival fires create smoke which can be seen and smelled from a long distance the light of a fire can be seen day or night the remains of a fire also leave distinct evidence of your presence fire needs air heat and fuel to burn avoid laying your fire on soil with high peat or humans content an ample supply of wood should be nearby clear away dry brush and scrape surface soil from the fire spot clear a circle at least a metre in diameter to keep the fire from spreading gather combustible materials before you begin to build your fire you need tender kindling and sustaining fuel for a fire tinder is dry material that ignites with a minimum of heat even a spark kindling is readily combustible material which can be added to tender when there is enough flame to ignite it sustaining fuel is less combustible material that burns slowly and steadily once it is well ignited there are several methods for laying the fire 1 fire lay is the cone or teepee a range tender and a few sticks of kindling into a cone or teepee shape as the core burns away the outside logs fall inward feeding the fire add sustaining fuel when you have a good fire started a lean-to is another way to lay a fire push a green stick into the ground at a 30-degree angle into the wind put a handful of tinder deep inside the lean-to stick and lean kindling against the stick add more kindling than sustaining fuel as the fire catches for a cross-stitch fire lay dig a three-inch deep cross in the dirt the ditch gives the fire its draft a large wad of tinder and pyramid of kindling in the center of the cross form the heart of the fire when you are evading the enemy use a Dakota fire hole it is the safest way to build a fire it conceals smoke flame and odor to build a Dakota fire hole dig a hole large enough for the fire under a large spreading tree on the upwind side of this hole poke or dig a large connecting hole for ventilation the smoke will dissipate in the trees vegetation keep the dirt from the hole nearby to be used if you need to put out the fire quickly to avoid detection this soil is also used to camouflage the hole before you depart the area use dry wood that produces little if any smoke and keep the fire small enough that the flames don't rise above the hole don't make the fire any larger than necessary if rocks or logs are available and if you have time build a fireplace wall the wall reduces flying sparks and protects the fire from wind be sure to leave enough draft to feed the fire also avoid wet or porous rocks in a fire wall they can explode you can start a fire without matches a magnesium fire starter which is easy to carry in a personal survival kit ignites tinder quickly you can start fires with other equipment you might have on your LBE or survival kit small strands of steel wool ignite when you connect them to the terminals of two radio or flashlight batteries gunpowder in the fire lei will act as tinder and igniting a fire if you are moving you will need to navigate even without a compass and map you can orient yourself with some simple navigation techniques when there is enough light to create shadow shadow tip navigation will show you where north is place a stick approximately three feet long into the ground where it will cast a shadow mark the end of the shadow with another stick or rock after about 15 minutes mark the end of the new shadow draw a line between the two marks and extend the line about 18 inches place the left foot on the first mark and the right foot on the line you will be facing north a watch with hands can help you navigate in the northern hemisphere hold the watch horizontally and point the hour hand at the Sun a thin stick can be used as an aid to line up the watch and Sun bisect the angle between the hour hand and 12:00 o'clock this would be the north-south line for standard time if your watch is set on daylight savings time use the midway point between the hour hand and one o'clock to find the north/south line if there is any doubt about which direction is north remember that the Sun rises in the East sets in the west and is due south at noon in the northern hemisphere in the southern hemisphere point the 12 o'clock mark toward the Sun the midpoint between 12:00 and the hour hand is the north-south line if you have only a digital watch estimate a clock face with the correct time on it and use it as you would a watch you can navigate on a clear night by the Stars in the northern hemisphere use the North Star as your compass locate the North Star by finding the Big Dipper first the Big Dipper looks like a giant ladle in the sky the two stars forming the outer lip of this differ are the pointer stars they point to the North Star mentally draw a line from the outer bottom star to the outer top star of the big dipper's bucket now extend this line about five times the distance between the pointer stars you will find the North Star along this line the North Star points due north in the southern hemisphere the Southern Cross will identify south the Southern Cross is a group of four bright stars in the shape of a cross tilted to the side if you extend an imaginary line five times the distance you will find a dark region called the coalsack locate a landmark on horizon directly below the coalsack this landmark will point you south you can improvise a compass to find north a piece of needle shaped ferrous metal or a flat double-edged razor blade and a piece of nonmetallic string or hair will make a compass magnetize the metal by slowly stroking it in one direction on a piece of silk or nylon running metal carefully through your hair or running a magnet along metal also will magnetize it the magnetized metal will point to the north you can polarize metal electrically with a battery and electric wire scrape the ends of the wire bare and coil it around the metal touch the bare ends of the wire to the battery terminals the metal becomes electromagnetic and will point north when suspended using the mossy side of a tree to find north is not always accurate moss grows completely around some trees you can survive in enemy territory for an extended time with only a few pieces of equipment knowledge of basic survival skills and a strong will to live when you are faced with survival continually size up your situation consider your needs for first aid water shelter food fire and signal when evading the enemy security is always your top priority survival skills increase your confidence and strengthen your will to live practice survival skills before you need to use them use them on our taps and off base ft X's knowing how to use survival skills before you need them could save your life

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